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BSc. Biochemistry

There are several courses spread out across the various years under department to make learning efficient. These are mostly course related subjects and topics of interest but interlased with a few indirectly related subjects to educate in various aspects in order to produce a versatile graduate.


Year One:    Semester One

Stereochemistry and polarimetry. Structure, reactions and functions of molecular components of the body. Carbohydrates (monosaccharides to polysaccharides). Lipids  (fatty acids, acylglycerols, waxes, complex and derived lipids, eicosanoids, lipid-soluble vitamins).

Periodic table and building up of the periodic table. Chemistry of the groups, transition elements – general characteristics.

Molecular composition and structure of organic compounds, determination and calculation of empirical and molecular formulae, pictorial treatment of hybridization; Organic Reactions: Bond formation and fission, Classification of reagents and reactions; Reaction Intermediates: Carbocations, Free radicals, Carbanions; Hydrocarbons (Aliphatic, alicyclic and aromatic), Structure and nomenclature, Homologous series, and gradation of properties, Preparation, Reactions; Petroleum Chemistry: crude oil and its fractions, petroleum cracking, octane rating, industrial Chemicals derived from cracker products.

Introduction to Physical chemistry: Definition, Structure of Science, Classifications; Laws,
Hypotheses, Theories and Models; States of Matter I: Classification; Structure and properties of matter; Types of systems; State variables and equations of state; Thermodynamics I: The First Law, Heat Capacity, Enthalpy and Thermochemistry; Chemical Kinetics I: Elementary Chemical Kinetics, Basic Laws, Effect of Temperature and the Arrhenius equation.

BIOL 151 - CELL STRUCTURE                               
The basic structure of cells and macromolecules and the techniques used in their study including light and electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and scanning probe microscopy. The historical development of cell biology.  Light Microscopic Techniques. Electron Microscopy.  Specialised Microscopic Techniques.  Scanning Probe Microscopy and X-ray Diffraction. Cell Membrances, The Endomembrane System, Chloroplast and Mitochondria, Cytoskeleton and Cell Junctions, Extracellular Matrix, Cell Fractionation and Chemical Analysis. 

Introduction to Hereditary, Preformation, Epigenesis, Pangenesis and Lamarckism. Mendelism: Independent assortment, Factors which influence Mendelian ratios. Types of chromosome, Chromosome abnormalities and human disease.  Meiosis and gene segregation with examples of human genetic disorders.  Sex determination and sex linked genes.  Production of Genetic maps, Human genetics-pedigree analysis. Genetic Counselling 

MATH 157 – ALGEBRA                                   
Elementary set theory. Indices and logarithms. Exponential function. Trignometric functions. Sequences and series. Quadratic equations. Permutations and combinations. Binomial theorem. Matrices and determinants.

Basic experimental skills in Biochemistry and Chemistry including use of some basic equipment. Laboratory safety. Scientific  report writing. Volumetric and gravimetric methods of analyses to include (Arrhenius) acid-base reactions, precipitation reactions, coordination complexes and redox reactions.  Review of cations and anions and functional group analyses.

ENGL 157 - COMMUNICATION SKILLS I                   
Introduction to parts of speech, nouns and pronouns, verbs, and tense, adjectives and adverbs, conjugations, prepositions and interjections.  Concord, the article, direct and indirect speech, the sentence, punctuation and paragraphing.
Year One:    Semester Two

BCHEM 154 - GENERAL BIOCHEMISTRY II                     
Amino acids to proteins. Enzymes, Coenzymes. Water-soluble vitamins. Introduction to porphyrins and nucleotide bases. Basic structure and properties of nucleic acids.

BCHEM 172 - INORGANIC CHEMISTRY II                   
Chemical bonding. Hybridization and shapes of simple molecules. VBT, MOT etc. Introduction to coordination chemistry. Applications of inorganic ions in biological systems.

Functional group chemistry (II): Nomenclature, properties, preparations and reactions of alcohols, phenols, carbonyls and amines.
Equilibrium I: Description of Chemical equilibria, Equilibrium Constant calculations, predicting direction of equilibria, Heterogeneous equilibria. Response of equilibria to conditions: pressure, temperature and added reagents; Acids, bases and salts: Definitions of strong and weak acids and bases, pH's, Hydrolysis of salts, Titration curves, Solubility equilibria, Ksp.; Thermodynamics II: Second and Third Laws. Entropy and Free Energy of Chemical Reactions, Heat engines, Carnot Cycle.

BIOL 164 – MOLECULAR BIOLOGY                  
An introduction to genetic notations, conventions and terminology. Prokaryotic chromosomal DNA: structure and function, Plasmid DNA structure, infection, replication and function. Classes of RNA: synthesis, structure, function, phylogenetic significance, mutagenesis, mutations and mutant types, notations, biochemical basis of mutants; Mutagens: spontaneous base analogue, chemical mutagen, intercalating agents, mutator genes, spontaneous types of mutations; inversion, translocation, nonsense, frame shift, deletions, insertion etc. Reversion and revertants; Transgenics: conjugation, transformation, and transduction.

MATH 158 – CALCULUS                                 
Co-ordinate geometry. Equation of a line. Differentiation. Integration of algebraic, trignometric, logarithmic and exponential functions. Definite integrals and their applications to areas and volumes. Trapezoidal rule and Sampson’s rule.  Differential equation.

Experiments on carbohydrates to include saccharides and polysaccharides, fatty acids, fats and oils, amino acids, peptides and proteins,  nucleotide bases, nucleotides and polynucleotides, vitamins A and C.

ENGL 158 - COMMUNICATION SKILLS II                  
The communication process, skills in communication and communication in organizations, Preparing efficient documents, the dynamics of oral communication, written communication; letters and employment correspondence. Writing of technical reports, proposals, memos and writing dissertations and long essay

 Year Two:    Semester One

Living cells and overview of intermediary metabolism. Mechanism of action of coenzymes from water-soluble vitamins. Basic principles of thermodynamics as applied to biological systems.  Bioenergetics principles and the ATP cycle – Bioenergetics of glycolysis, TCA cycle.  Membranes – composition and assembly, permeability, transport systems, types (nuclear, mitochondria, chloroplast). Photosynthesis.

BCHEM 257    - ORGANIC CHEMISTRY I                       
Stereochemistry. Organic reactions II: Substitution, addition and elimination reactions.

BCHEM 259 - PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY I                     
Solutions. Electrochemistry. Surface Chemistry. Catalysis, colloids, phase equilibria.

BIOL 251 - BASIC MICROBIOLOGY                       
Introduction to the science of microbiology; Brief description of nature and kinds of microorganisms (Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic). Introduction to bacteriophage and the nature of viruses. Structure of microorganisms; size and shape, rigidity and flexibility, storage materials, motility, etc. Nutrient and growth requirements (types of media and conditions for cultivation); physiology and kinetic of growth, Isolation and characterization of bacteria: pure culture, direct isolation and enrichment culture techniques. Classification of bacteria types based on Gram staining reactions; carbon and energy, oxygen, temperature, sporulation etc. Preservation methods for short, medium and long term purposes.

BIOL 253 – HUMAN ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY I                     
The structure in relation to the physiology of important biological functions and processes within the human body. Cells and tissues in mammals. Relations of tissue structure to function.  Respiratory, Digestive, Cardiovascular, Immune and muscoloskeletal system.  Associated malfunctioning of these systems. 

CSM 183 - INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS I                   
Part I
Introduction. Processing Device, Input / Output devices.  Storage Devices System Software. Application Software.

Part II- Introduction to Windows
The Basics, Working with a Window.  File Management in Windows XP. Managing Files with My Computer.  Using the On-Line Help and Support.  Login On and Off Windows. Introduction to the Internet.

Part III - Introduction to MS-WORD
Creating Word document.  Formatting, Creating tables and indexes. Formatting tables.  Inserting Objects. Formatting objects. Formatting Objects, Merging Documents and Sorting Data.
ENGL 263 – LITERATURE IN ENGLISH I                                
Literature as Poetry: What a poem is, and its characteristics. Difference between a poem and a song. The figure of speech and the literary device.  Practical appreciation.
Texts to be studied: African and English poems.

LAW 151 - LAW OF CONTRACT I                                  

Nature of Contract: sources of law, concept of bargain, classification. Formation of Contract: offer and acceptance; consideration, intention to create legal relations. Contents of Contract: terms, representations, excluding and limiting terms and fundamental breach of terms. Capacity: infants, illiterates, co-operations, mental patients and drunken persons.

FC 181/182 - FRENCH FOR COMMUNICATION I & II           
The course(s) are specially tailored for students who have little or no knowledge in French.
These courses are aimed at helping the student to grasp basic vocabulary to be able to function in everyday situations. Spoken French and oral comprehension are emphasized. This is supplemented with written exercises aimed at giving students ample opportunity to maximize their use of the language.
The communicative approach is used to enable students express themselves indifferent situations. By the end of the second semester, students are expected to be able to express themselves well in given situations.

Aspect Grammatical: La definition et genre d’un objet; I’identite d’une personne; Les jours dela semaine; Lesmkois deI’annee; Les chiffresde zero a cent. La conjugasion: Le present de I’indicatif des verbs reguliers et irreguliers.  Interrogation avec les suivant: Est-ce-que
Year Two:    Semester Two

Degradative pathways of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins – glycolysis, TCA, PPP, redox reactions and electron transport, glycogenolysis, ?-oxidation of fatty acids, amino acid degradation.

BCHEM 258 - ORGANIC CHEMSITRY II                  
Alkyl halides: nomenclature, properties, preparations and reactions. Carboxylic acids and derivatives. Chemistry of isoprenoids, hormones, pheromones, alkaloids and flavonoids.

BCHEM 260 - PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY II                  
Quantum mechanics. Chemical bonding. Molecular spectroscopy.

BIOL 252 - MICROBIAL ECOLOGY                       
An introduction to the natural environments of microoganisms: the atmospheric, terrestrial and the aquatic environments.  Microoganisms of extreme environments: low water potential, extreme temperatures, extreme pH values, extreme hydrostatic pressure, low nutrient concentration and high UV light radiation. Biofilms.  Strategies for survival: role of stationary phase, spore formation and entry into the viable but non-culturable stage. Dispersal of microorganisms and development of microbial populations: dispersal, colonisation and successions, population establishment, natural selection and adaptations. Interactions involving microorganisms: microbe-microbe, microbe-plant (metabolic associations, antagonisms, the phytosphere, rhizosphere, mycorrhiza, root nodule systems and plant pathogens), microbe-animal (symbiotic, saprophytic and pathogenic).

BIOL 254 – HUMAN ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY II                         
Urinary systems, excretion and osmoregulation.  Disorders of salt and water balance.  Heat balance and regulation of body temperature. Nervous and endocrine systems – the nerve impulse. Neuromuscular transmission.  Functions of the endocrine glands and neuroendocrine integration.

Part I - Microsoft Excel
Introduction.  Creating a worksheet.  Entering data in cells.  Editing data a cell.  Saving a workbook Closing a workbook and exciting Excel.  Formatting a worksheet.  Working with Formulas and Functions. Using Advance Functions.  Creating a chart.  Working with Lists.  Printing worksheets.

Part II – Microsoft Access
Introduction to Database.  Creating database files.  Creating tables.  Modifying a tables design.  Creating Forms.  Adding Titles and Graphics to Forms.  Resizing, Moving, and Editing Control Objects.  Creating calculated controls.  Creating Forms with two tables.  Creating Queries.  Applying filters to Queries.  Specifying multiple criteria for a Query in Design view.  Creating Reports.  Understanding parts of a Report.  Modifying a Report in Design view.  Sorting records in a Report.  Calculate a total or an Average. Printing Reports.  Defining Relationships in Access database.  Viewing existing relationships between Tables.  Editing existing relationship.   Understanding referential integrity.

Continuation of ENGL 263. Literature as Narrative.  Traditional [19th Century] Narrative, Contemporary Narrative.  The African Novel.
Texts to be studied: Selected African and English novels.

LAW 152   - LAW OF CONTRACT II                 
Vitiating Elements of a Contract: Mistake, misrepresentation; duress, illegality and Unenforceable contracts. Privity of Contract: rules and exceptions. Discharge of Contract: by performance, agreement, breach and frustration. Remedies/ Damages: equitable remedies in outline only, quantum merit claims and quasi contract.

FC 182 – FRENCH FOR COMMUNICATION II                  
L’aspect grammatical; L’article partitif; la conjugaison; pronominalisation, l’expression figee avec le verbe avoir et etre. Degree de l’adjectif; l’expression de la duee, I’expression  interrogative avec les adverbs suivants, L’aspect communicatif;  Au restaurant, invitation; le voyage, remplir une fiche, chercher un appartement, correspondance, Civilisation: la culture francaise.
Year Three:    Semester One
General principles governing synthetic pathways. Synthetic pathways of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism – gluconeogenesis, glyoxylate cycle, glycogenesis, biosynthesis of fatty acids, phospholipids and cholesterol.

BCHEM 355 - ANALYTICAL BIOCHEMISTRY I                   
Acid/bases. Buffers. Methods of measuring pH. Potentiometric titrations. Polarimetry. Colorimetry and spectrophotometry. Flourimetry. Phosphorimetry. Turbidometry. Nephelometry. Flame photometry.

Definition of fermentation. Types of fermentation processes. Safety in the fermentation laboratory. Microbial isolation (e.g. antibiotics producing strains). Strain preservation and culture management. Inoculum preparation. Fermentation with wild-type strains, mutant and genetically engineered microorganisms. Fermentative production of amino acids, eg. glutamic acid. Strain improvement for amino acid production. Amino acid production with enzymes. Strain improvement methods for antibiotic production.

Analytical biochemistry practicals: experiments on the use of the pH meter and its calibration; preparation of buffer solutions and determination of buffer capacity of different buffers, experiments on titration of strong and weak acid systems; use of the polarimeter for qualitative and quantitative analysis of sugars; experiments on spectrophotometry; determination of absorption spectrum of some dyes; Biuret and Lowry methods of protein quantitation; determination of serum cholesterol levels; inorganic phosphate determination by Fiske and Subbarow method.

Fermentation and biotechnology practicals: general microbiology laboratory safety and regulations; basic techniques of observation, isolation and characterization of microbes; preservation of microbes; fermenter types and functions (industrial visits); design and costing for a fermentation set-up.

Introduction to biochemical engineering. Material and energy balances. Fluid flow.  Mixing and agitation of liquids.  Heat transfer.  Microbial growth kinetics – batch, fed – batch and continuous culture systems.  Fermenters (bioreactors): types and construction principles. Operations:  oxygen supply and demand, aeration efficiency, pH and temperature control, use of anti – foaming agents. 

BCHEM 365 - BIOPHYSICS                                               
Physical techniques: electrophoresis, microscopy and radiobiology.
(1)  Electrophoresis: theory and methods of electrophoresis. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. SDS- PAGE, agarose gel electrophoresis.  Isoelectric focussing applications.
(2)  Microscopy: important parameters used in microscopy – magnification, resolving power and contrast. Phase contrast microscopy. Electron microscopy. Practical microscopy.
(3) Radiobiology: origin and properties of radioactivity. Types of radiation. Artificial radioactivity. Atomic transmutation. Kinetics of radioactive decay. Detection of radioactivity. Geiger – Müller tube. Liquid scintillation counting techniques and applications. Isotope dilution. Radiotracer techniques in metabolic studies. Autoradiography. Biological effects of nuclear radiation. Radiation dosimetry. Activation analysis. Safe handling of radioisotopes. Disposal of radioactive waste; Application of radioisotopes in agriculture, food, medicine etc. Imaging techniques.

MATH 153 – STATISTICAL METHODS I                      
Basic concepts of statistics; statistical methods; descriptive statistics, organization and presentation of data; numerical measurers; central tendency; dispersion; position; skewness; kurtosis; probability; random experiments; probability laws; computation of probability of single events; application of permutation and combination; counting techniques in probability.

The purpose of this course is to introduce those without prior knowledge of Economics to fundamental concepts and the use of analytical techniques which will be helpful in the study of economic problems.  It is also to provide those not intending to specialise in the subject with knowledge of principles which can be in related discipline.  The course covers the nature and scope of economics; consumer choice; determination of prices in different market conditions; production theory; and theory of distribution.
Nitrogen cycle and amino acid metabolism. Metabolism of porphyrin, purines and pyrimidines. Disorders of carbohydrate, lipids and amino acid metabolism.  Metabolic regulation.

Chromatographic methods: Partition, adsorption, ion exchange, molecular exclusion, thin layer and affinity chromatography, Gas Liquid Chromatography (GLC), High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Chromatofocussing. Preparative and analytical centrifugation. Immunological methods and biosensors.

Development of fermentation processes. Bench-top fermenters set-up. Purification methds (small and large-scale). Bioethanol, wine and beer productions. Vinegar production. Fermentative production of citric acids. Biomass, biopolymer (e.g. polyhydroxy alkanaotes: PHAs, etc.) and single-cell protein (SCP) production. Solid state fermentation: enzyme production, mushroom production. Production of proteins via recombinant – DNA techniques.  

Food analysis practicals: proximate analysis of a food sample to include determination of moisture, ash, protein, crude fibre, non-protein nitrogen, nitrogen-free extract, oils and fats.

Analytical biochemistry practicals: determination of the iron content of some selected vegetables by atomic absorption/flame photometry, experiments on chromatography to include adsorption chromatography for separation of plant pigments, experiments on thin layers chromatography for separation of lipids using one solvent and two solvent systems. Demonstration of HPLC and GLC Experiments on rapid isolation of DNA from plant and animal sources. DNA characterisation by agarose gel electrophoresis. 

Fermentation and biotechnology practicals: Lactic acid fermentation and yoghurt production from cow milk and plant milk sources; cheese production from milk; lactic acid fermentation of some local vegetables; alcohol fermentation – ethanol from sugar/sugar cane; malt from various indigenous cereals – comparison of wort from these cereals; wine production from different carbohydrate sources; solid state fermentation of traditional foods – kenkey, ogi, fish, etc.

Downstream processing, Fermentation economics, Sterilization. Refrigeration principles. Size reduction. Mixing and forming. Separation and concentration of products. Drying.  Waste disposal.

BCHEM 360 - FOOD BIOCHEMISTRY                          
Essential nutrients required by man. Carbohydrates, lipids and proteins; properties related to food. Enzymes; properties related to food. Sources and uses of food enzymes. Plant pigments. Plant acids. Pectic substances and colloidal state of foods. Browning reactions. Food additives and toxicants. Sensory characteristics of taste; sweet, sour and bitter tastes.

MATH 154 – STATISTICAL METHODS II                            
Averages and variations; mode, median and mean; measures of variation; mean and standard deviation of grouped data; percentiles and Box-and-Whisker plots; random variables and probability distribution; binomial distribution; Poisson distribution; normal distribution; statistical influences.

A survey of national income – its measurement and determinants; fluctuations in economics activity and trends in Ghana’s national income; index number; international trade and national economy; role of government.
Year Four:    Semester One

BCHEM 451 - ANIMAL NUTRITION                          
Historical overview of animal nutrition. Chemistry of nutrients. Metabolic role of nutrients. Nutrient content and energy values of foodstuffs. Qualitative and quantitative requirements of nutrients. Economics of malnutrition. Methodology of nutritional needs. Human nutritional assessment (children, adults, pregnancy and lactation) and therapeutic nutrition.

BCHEM 453 - ENZYMES 1                            
Historical perspective and application of enzymes. Classification and nomenclature of enzymes. Enzyme isolation and purification. Criteria for purity of enzymes. Enzyme kinetics and inhibition. Factors affecting enzyme activity.

BCHEM 455 - MOLECULAR GENETICS                     
Structure, properties and role of DNA and RNA. Biosynthesis of DNA and RNA (replication and transcription processes). Protein biosynthesis (translation). Genetic code. Mutations. Regulation of protein synthesis. Control of gene expression. Introduction to manipulation of nucleic acids.

FTECH 481: Food Processing Technology I                            
Cleaning of food raw materials, Communition (size reduction), Expression, Solid-Liquid Extraction, Mixing, Emulsification, Mechanical Separation processes: Filtration, Screening and Centrifugation. Membrane Separation processes such as Ultrafiltration, Reverse osmosis and Electro-dialysis.

Historical Background. The basis of plant cell and tissue culture: totipotency.  Requirement for in vitro culture: tissue culture laboratory, nutrient media, hormones, etc. Culture of plant materials: ex-plant culture, callous formation and organogenesis, root and shoot culture. Plant regeneration from tissue culture. Protoplast culture and regeneration of whole plants.  Applications of plant tissue culture: agriculture, micropropagation, forestry, horticulture and industry.

BCHEM 465 - MEDICAL BIOCHEMISTRY                     
Mechanism of disease, cell injury and protection. Biochemistry of cancer. The anaemias, including sickle cell. Bilirubin metabolism and jaundice.  Inborn errors of metabolism.
Students opting for this elective will have practical exposure at the Clinical Analysis Laboratory.

BCHEM 471 - IMMUNOLOGY                             
Biological nature of immune system. Diversity in the recognition theories of antibody – antigen reaction. Abnormal immunoglobulins. Cells and tissues of the immune systems. Humoral and cellular immunity. Tolerance induction. Autoimmune diseases. Blood group substances: ABO and Rh systems, blood typing, cross matching in blood transfusion. Transfusion reactions and causes. Histocompatibiliy antigens, tissue graft and graft rejection. Complement system in immune response. Hypersensitivity. Monoclonal antibodies.

Estimation and hypothesis testing: chi-square tests, regression and correlation analysis, non-parametric influence. Introduction to designing of experiments. Experiments involving paired data. Analysis of variance. Special designs. Complete randomized design. Randomized block design. Latin squares and paired orthogonal Latin  squares. Incomplete block design. Factorial experiments including confounding and fractional replication. Analysis of covariance.
Statistical packages for the various stages of the analysis of experiments in Biosciences. Data management and handling techniques. Application softwares (Excel, Access, SPSS)

Review of microbial genetics. Control mechanisms for biosynthesis of protein in micro-organisms. Sources of micro-organisms and growth conditions for production of natural products such as organic acids, amino acids, B-vitamins, etc. Production of microbial enzymes for use in food, fermentation and pharmaceutical industries. Study of some examples of food and fermentation industries that use commercial microbial enzymes.

BCHEM 491 - BREWING SCIENCE                        
Sources of raw materials for beer, wine and other alcoholic beverages production; Cleaning and disinfection in the brewing industry; Yeast biology and handling; Brewing water; Wort production; Hops; Wort treatment; Hop utilisation,; Wort cooling; Yeast pitching and aeration; Fermentation; Maturation/Conditioning; Bright beer filtration.

This course will consist of four parts and each part will be assessed by oral examination and/or written examination.

Part one: A series of 12-14 hours of lectures and visits to library as well as browsing n the internet will introduce the students to carrying out a complete literature review on a research project through the use of reference books, book of abstracts, scientific journals and scientific information from the Internet. Scientific report writing in the form of a thesis and scientific papers will be covered.

Part two: Each student will be assigned a library project by supervisor to carry out a complete literature review on the project and submit a report. The project may involve collection of information through surveys.

Part Three:  Information and data collected in part two will be presented in the form of a seminar.

Part four:  The literature review in the form of a report on the research project from BCHEM 480 will be assessed.

MGT 471 - PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT                     
The objective of this course is to equip students (without basic knowledge in Management) with the tools of decision-making, organization and management of decision-making organization and management of firms and organizations. It covers: Nature and scope management; managerial functions; organizational theories; goals of business organization economic and social responsibilities of management; decision-making techniques and influence; Organizational behaviour/human relations-interpersonal and group processes; application of concepts, like leadership, motivation, communication, morale to management of people and organization; time management; analysis of causes of change, managing change, innovation; management control.
Year Four:    Semester Two

BCHEM 454 - ENZYMES II                           
Enzyme specificity. Mechanisms of catalysis of enzymes. Identification of active site amino acid residues. Regulatory enzymes including isozymes; Enzyme cofactors, enzyme immobilization.

Basic definitions. Gene cloning and tools required; screening and isolation of  recombinant molecules. cDNA synthesis and isolation of expressed genes.  Genomic and cDNA libraries and their uses. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and its applications Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) in gene characterization and disease diagnosis. DNA sequencing methods. Applications of genetic engineering in medicine, agriculture etc.

Sources of foreign compounds/non-nutrients/toxicants. Principles of the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of foreign compounds/toxicants. Factors affecting disposition of foreign compounds/toxicants and the types of toxic effect they may cause.  Specific examples of toxicity and their underlying mechanisms.  Measurement of toxicity and of toxicants. Prevention of toxicity.

FTECH 482 Food Processing Technology II                           
Water in beverage and food processing: water quality, steam generation, Blanching, Pasteurization, Drying rates, Humidification and Dehumidification, Roasting, Freeze drying, solar drying, tray driers, drum driers, spray drying, microwave cooking, canning, extrusion of food.

BCHEM 462 - PLANT BIOCHEMISTRY AND MEDICINE                                
Secondary metabolism of plants; medicinally important secondary metabolites (e.g. glycosides, alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids). The biochemical basis of action, extraction and characterization of bioactive compounds from plants.
BCHEM 464 - HORMONE ACTION AND HEALTH                  
Structure and biological function of the following endocrine glands; pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenals, testes, ovaries and pancreas. Hypo- and hyperactivity of these glands and their health implications. Intestinal hormones, cAMP as secondary messenger. Integration and control of endocrine function. Methods of study of endocrine function. Biosynthesis and regulation of selected hormones.

BCHEM 468 – FOOD BIOTECHNOLOGY                      
Definitions; biotechnology and traditional fermented foods, contribution of modern biotechnology to the improvement on traditional fermented foods. Enzymes in food processing and new products development, impact of biotechnology on food flavour and colour industry. Plant biotechnology and genetically modified foods; meat quality improvement through biotechnology applications. Biotechnology and food safety. Public perception of genetically modified foods.

Overview of the role and functionality of food constituents and ingredients: proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and additives. Introduction to food product development-Classification of food products as basis for innovation, the sociological and technological aspects of food product development. Concepts of new product development, developing an innovation strategy, criteria for new products, key factors in product success. The role of consumer in product development.  The food product development process. Food standards. 

BCHEM 484 - PARASITE BIOCHEMISTRY                   
Pathophysiology of the following tropical parasitic diseases: Malaria, trypanosomiasis, filarasis, schistosomiasis and gastrointestinal worm infestations. Biochemistry of the causative parasites with emphasis on host-parasite interrelationships: Metabolic processes that can be utilized in chemotherapeutic attack of the parasites; biomembranes.

Topics of special interest not covered in other courses in the programme in the area of biotechnology will be covered in this course. As advances are made in this area the topics may change depending on the speciality areas of staff at post. Examples of topics to be covered could be: (1) advances in production of microbial enzymes and their various applications, and (2) advances in nutraceutical biotechnology.

BCHEM 480 - SEMINAR AND RESEARCH PROJECT                                
This course will consist of two parts:

Part one:     Independent and original research project under the supervision of a member of staff will be assigned to students. Assessment of the research project will include a thesis report and oral examination.

Part two:      Pertinent areas and key aspects of research will be presented in a seminar. 

MGT 472  -  PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT II                    
The entrepreneur-definition; entrepreneur background and characteristics; creating a new venture; personal factors in starting a business; forms of business organizations; intellectual property; sources of capital; business plan.

Topics of special interest not covered in other courses in the program in the area of molecular and clinical biochemistry will be covered in this curse. As advances in these areas are made the topics may change depending on the specialty areas of the staff at post. An example of topics t be covered could be advances in molecular methods for the treatment of some molecular diseases such as HbS. This course may also be taken for postgraduate credits.

The BSc. program offers strong theoretical and practical experience in chemistry, biochemistry and molecular biology with the goal of producing marketable professionals for research and industry.

Biochemistry Graduates of the Department have advanced to graduate schools; to work in reputed medical laboratories; pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies or regulatory agencies (including Food and Drugs Board and Standard Board) in Ghana. International students have also secured similar positions in their home countries. For more details, contact the Programmes Coordinator, Dr. Christopher Larbie: or You can also call +233243445961.

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